Available Summaries

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By DisciplineBy KeywordBy Author
Summary OfAuthored ByDisciplinessort iconAbstract
Foundations of Human Sociality (Introduction and Overview)
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
Experiments like the Ultimatum Game and the Public Goods Game (one shot games for real money divided among strangers) that have been conducted in different countries all over the world have shown that group behavior frequently does not fit the traditional model of self-interested actors, that it is too richly varied between cultures to support a universal sense of fairness, and that a higher degree of market integration and higher payoffs to cooperation can be linked to greater levels of prosocial behavior.
Inside-Out: Regional Networks and Industrial Adaptation in Silicon Valley and Route 128
Economics
Sociology
The decentralized organizational form, non-proprietary standards, and tradition of cooperative exchange (sharing information and outsourcing for component parts) of electronics firms in California's Silicon Valley explain why the region was able to keep up with the fast pace of technological progress during the 1980s, while the vertically integrated firms of the Massachusetts Route 128 beltway fell behind.
Institutional Interplay: The Environmental Consequences of Cross-Scale Interactions
Economics
Political Science
Sociology
Cross-scale (vertical) interactions among resource regimes must be planned in such a way that maximizes the benefits of interaction by higher levels of social organization (comprehensive planning with respect to ecosystems management and equity) and minimizes the disadvantages (bias towards economically and politically powerful parties).
Modeling Robust Settlements to Civil War: Indivisible Stakes and Distributional Compromises
Economics
Political Science
From mathematical modeling of the risk factors and uncertainty involved in a party’s continued conflict, withdrawal from conflict or commitment to a peace agreement, the distributional aspects surrounding civil war negotiations are shown to determine the robustness and range of potential settlements; the actual moves of conflicting parties in civil wars are found to reflect the dynamics of game theoretical models.
Predicting the Future
Economics
The authors propose a market-based methodology, that accounts for public information, for predicting future outcomes using a small number of individuals participating in an imperfect information market and they verify the method demonstrating that predictions outperform the market and the best predictor in the group of participants.
Social Science at 190 MPH on NASCAR's Biggest Speedways
Economics
Sociology
NASCAR race draft line formations and dissolutions can serve as an example for cooperation and competition in other social domains.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar
Economics
Eric Raymond compares two styles of software development using his own experience as illustration -- the traditional top-down (Cathedral) approach and the bottom-up (Bazaar) approach -- and points out how Internet-enabled cooperation makes the Bazaar approach highly efficient for the right tasks.
The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups
Economics
Political Science
Sociology
Rational, self-interested individuals in large groups need a positive incentive or negative sanction delivered through institutional arrangements in order to provide themselves a collective good; in small groups the collective good itself can be incentive enough for individuals to cooperate.
The Quest for Meaning in Public Choice
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
Frameworks, composed of theories that are in turn composed of varying models need to be developed to study and make predictions about the complex behaviors that take place in social situations.
The Wisdom of Crowds
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
James Surowiecki argues that with the proper structure and characteristics, large groups of ordinary people can outperform small groups of experts in making decisions and predictions.