Available Summaries

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By DisciplineBy KeywordBy Author
Summary OfAuthored ByDisciplinessort iconAbstract
Deindividuation and Anti-normative Behavior: A Meta Analysis
Cultural Evolution
Sociology
Psychology
Deindividuation theory is a social psychological account of the individual in the crowd that postulates that the psychological state of deindividuation brings about anti-normative and disinhibited behavior in the individual members.
P2P and Human Evolution: Peer to peer as the premise of a new mode of civilization
Cultural Evolution
Technology
Sociology
More than just a technical architecture or an organizational format for knowledge exchange or collaboration, Peer to Peer keeps appearing as a model in many arenas, from technical to cultural, to social and political, and it is ultimately leading to the establishment of a new civilization.
The Parable of the Tribes
Cultural Evolution
Political Science
“The parable of the tribes” is used to describe schematically how one aggressive tribe among an otherwise peaceful group can force the spread of the “ways of power” throughout the system: power becomes a contaminant that, once introduced, becomes universal abetted and magnified through innovations in organization and technology.
Paying for Public Goods
Computer Science
Economics
Political Science
Scientific and technological developments such as the Human Genome Project, GNU/Linux, Global Positioning Satellite data, file-sharing distribution of music and cinema, the cost of drugs for global epidemics such as AIDS, has necessitated new models for paying for public goods, such as compulsory licensing, competitive intermediators, and nonprofit matching funds.
That Sneaky Exponential: Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building
Computer Science
Economics
Reed's Law states that communications networks that connect groups (as opposed to peers) create value that scales exponentially with network size.
The Relationship Revolution
Technology
Economics
While the Internet phenomenon is often referred to as an “Information Revolution,” Michael Schrage says this is a misnomer and claims it is more accurate to state that the world is in the midst of a Relationship Revolution.
Measuring Social Norms and Preferences Using Experimental Games: A Guide for Social Scientists
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
In addition to self-interested behavior, various experimental games have been able to quantifiably demonstrate behavior with preferences for altruism, equality and reciprocity, reflections of a human dedication to social norms even at personal cost.
Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptations
Economics
Political Science
Studying long-standing institutions for governing common pool resources at various scales can provide important lessons for governing new kinds of shared resources. In the end, institutionalizing effective processes for ongoing negotiation of the rules is more important than the rules themselves.
Cooperation and International Regimes
Economics
Political Science
Using “international [cooperation] regimes” as an example, Keohane examines how cooperation is possible in the absence of a “hegemon” to enforce compliance.
Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity
Economics
Sociology
Psychology
Cooperation through indirect reciprocity, captured by the phrase "I help you, someone else helps me", requires the evolution of reputations and communication of those reputations among the larger group (as in the human instinct to gossip), cognitive abilities beyond being able to identify relatives (required for kin selection) or the individuals who have cooperated with you in the past (required for direct reciprocity).